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The Dark Goddess
excerpts from the Taxonomy
determining Her Identity & functionality

of The Kymraec Pantheon of Dn,

the sublime Goddesses and

Hero Gods of the Brythonic Kelt

First, the question: "What are the Gods?"

This question was asked by the hero in Dion Fortune's book 'The Winged Bull'.  The reply given must surely be the best that one may ever find, "The gods are lenses that wise men have made through which to focus natural forces."   Here we have a dilemma which disparate people can nonetheless find understandable and workable.

The philosopher may talk of noumena, protyles & phenomena. (vide the philosophy of Kant)
.....The scientist and indeed the atheist may talk of essences or forces,
     substances and
..........A Christian still believes in his all-male Trinity, Archangels,
          Angels & Saints.

...............The polytheist and animist are quite comfortable with
               Goddesses, Gods, Demigods, group & individual Spirits. 

....................The Cosmotheist and Metaphysician are quite at home
                    with Goddesses, Gods, High
Kindred of the Elements
                    and elemental life with Spirit at all levels of
                    manifestation together with noumena, protyles,
                    phenomena, Cosmic
Essences, Forces and the many &
varied attributes thereof.

So here I stand in this latter ecumenical category that happily holds hands in a circle with philosophers, scientists, atheists, animists and polytheists, all of whom may dine at the same table, would they but try.

Here then, to satisfy our familiarity with human form, is an exercise that is primarily concerned with anthropomorphisms that are designed to connect us with the various Kantian Noumena and Protyles that are the abstract masks behind which linger essences, forces or powers.

(The Hebrew font used herein is 'hermetica', the two Sanskrit syllables which appear in the text are given as gifs.) 

DN is the obvious Mother of the
Major Kymraec (Brythonic Keltic) Pantheon. 

This is easily deduced from various personages who are referred to as Penarddun ferch (daughter of) Dn, Gwydion ap (son of) Dn and Arianrhod ferch Dn.  The origin of this Matriarch's name is unclear but two possibilities present.

a) The Welsh 'ton' is the word for 'wave' or 'that which flows' and 'don' shows the logical Welsh mutation of the 't' to a 'd' which is the case when following the definite article.  In this manner 'ton' becomes 'y don' (the wave), the 'y' eventually disappearing when the word became a proper name.  On many occasions, New Age writers, when talking of such matters, term this stratum of spirit Akasha or "space that flows" which is very apt indeed.

b) The Welsh 'on' is an 'ash tree'.  Within the concepts of the Northern European Mysteries (Odinism) the ash tree is the structure which sustains the world, all that is above and all which lies below, i.e. the entire universe or cosmos - its branches spreading throughout the universe.  As the Old Welsh 'di' denotes 'from' or 'by nature of, combined we find 'dion' (by nature of the ash) which may have been contracted to 'don'.   This is the second possibility and the two are metaphysically compatible.

Here we have a structure which is analogous to 'y gwe' (the web), symbolic of the foundation of Dark Matter, the existent reality upon which manifestation appears.(1b)

Therefore the concepts of 'flowing' and 'supporting structure of the cosmos' refer to the 'space which flows' and the 'invisible web of space' which are descriptors used by  many 20th century writers.  

In reality we are contemplating the noumenal epigenesis of Dark Matter(1c) in quantum physics and the later concept of 'shadow matter'(2) which was born of the string theory & super string theory in quantum mechanics.

This specific noumenon spawns the manifestation of cosmos in all its diverse aspects.  In short we have a cosmic matrix and, as such, Dn satisfies the requirements of a Great Mother or Cosmic Goddess.

As Leslene Della-Madre reminds us, matter really means Mater, not only implying the Latin for 'mother' but also expanding this, I argue, to mean the concept of the vast,  magnificent ever-living Cosmic Femininity.

 She is the anthropomorphised Avia (Grand Mother) that permeates all things which She constantly extrudes.  Now what do the renowned and not so renowned mythologists have to add to the above?

At least Robert Graves in 'The White Goddess' refers to Dn as the 'ancestor of the confederacy'.  Squire and Rolleston make no attempt to describe Dn's identity while Dr. Ross simply calls her the 'nurturer of the gods'.  Christine Hartley's concept of this supreme Feminine stratum of Divine Power relegates her to the level of 'earth mother'.   So a number of mythologists evidently had not researched Her name or purpose but merely recognised Her rle as a dramatis persona.


There always was and always will be an Essence which you cannot see or understand.  Therefore it can be called Dark, i.e. hidden, as in "Im telling you this in confidence so keep it dark."  Nevertheless it remains, in the state before manifestation, invisible, unknown and not understood.

The Dark Essence

If a Buddhist is questioned about his beliefs, he may say he believes in nothing.  By this he means the Dark Essence which is no thing, as we understand that to exist, a thing must be recognised by at least one sense .   For this reason, many have called Buddhists atheists.  I refer now to this Essence as feminine, passive or negative Spirit.

The concept of Darkness or Blackness has its roots in the colour black which reflects nothing but absorbs and contains within itself - every possible hue of every colour.  So the Dark Essence contains within itself every possibility/probability which may remain hidden or become overt reality, whether to us conceivable or inconceivable.

The Black Madonna in Christian art (pilfered from the Middle Eastern concept of Isis) is one such popular figure.  Indeed the many wayside Middle Eastern shrines to Isis or to Isis and Horus became converted (usurped) by the Church as Mary or as Mary Qeotokoj (Theotokos i.e. Mother of God) with the baby Jesus in her arms.

It is the boundless All and is always One (the Metaphysical Law of Unity).  Science has now recognised the existence of this Essence.  The Knightrider News Service Washington reported on 24th June 1999: "In scientific papers and talks, the dark essence goes by a variety of exotic names: cosmic dark energy, vacuum energy and zero-point energy.  To describe it, cosmologists have even revived the ancient term quintessence - the name medieval scholars gave to an invisible substance in which heavenly bodies supposedly floated."

From one of my short descriptors:-

"Darkness  in density abounded,
Thriving in profundity bizarre.

Extent and span een depth were naught

For neither
was dimension understood
Nor aeon nor existence
Nor yet vibration brief,

As mystique and All were one.

Still 'All' was reverie and aspiration

Ere outspread this compact umbra

Beyond the veild heart of Gwynfyd.
(Gwynfyd = Paradise)

What may be seen here is an analogous concept to the Qabalistic veils behind manifestation, even prior to the emerging space time continuum -  (ain) 'non-existence' and  (soph) 'without end' or 'limit' which gives us (ain-soph) 'endless non-being' where there is a void, i.e.no thing.

Having examined the Qabalistic analogy, perhaps we should look briefly at the Tibetan texts as translated by Madame Blavatsky and appear in her work "The Secret Doctine":-


"1. The eternal parent wrapped in her ever invisible robes had slumbered once
      again for seven eternities.

 2. Time was not, for it lay asleep in the infinite bosom of duration.

 3. Universal mind was not, for there were no Ah-hi to contain it.

 4. The seven ways to bliss were not. The great causes of misery were not, for
     there was no one to produce and get ensnared by them.

 5. Darkness alone filled the boundless all, for father, mother and son were once
     more one, and the son had not awakened yet for the new wheel, and his
     pilgrimage thereon."

Again we have the Eternal Parent, invisible and inert with Her consort in non-existence, the trials of Maya (illusion) nowhere and these Parents and their offspring (manifestation) held in a noumenal singularity as a new Cosmos was yet unborn.  The wheel refers to a cycle in time which repeats endlessly and can be better understood by the Keltic Kylch Abred - Wheel of Rebirth (for human kind).  

Even Sanskrit has the terminology of the days and mights of Brahman who awakes at a Manvantaric dawn and whose consciousness maintains the universe until the next night of Brahman.

Our legends constantly reinforce this cyclical theme from the Earth Goddess Who returns from bondage in the Dark Lord's keep at the start of Spring (Dychweliad - Candlemas) to the monthly lunar cycles to - to what, cosmic cycles perhaps?  The Lord of Fate has spun his wheel but where will it stop - a "big crunch" or a "big rip"?  Mankind may have been lost for aeons in the pages of terrestrial history before an answer to this riddle is found. 

It has dreams or plans which It "keeps in the dark."  But when it so desires, It brings a new cosmos, new galaxy, new star, new world, new species, new element or combination of elements, new concept, new anything into manifestation when the time is right and where we can see it "in the light of day."  Ah, here we see the meaning of "light" - not so much radiating light as we see from a sun, but "out in the open for all to see."  The Essences dreams/plans have become reality, externalised as 'Light Principles' but these extracts are NOT apart from the Essence but remain extrusions of the Essence - the Latin extrudere to 'thrust out'. 

I continue to refer to this Essence as a feminine and ethereal noumenon with the remit to flow and extrude but as a negative concept, not energy in itself but matter which requires to be driven by the positivity of the ubiquitous male (God) energy or force.  Herein lies the essential dichotomic state but with the  twain forever bound in One to ensure y wawr cyntaf (the Manvantaric dawn) -  beginning of the continuum of manifestation.  (Metaphysical Law of Unity.)

This is not an act of creation as when one person takes materials to hand and fashions an object or, in flawed theological terms, when a separate mega-deity stirs some cosmic soup and supposedly creates a new galaxy.  This act is an outpouring of the Dark Essence so that every new metaphysical fact is a portion of the Essence, an extension of the Essence and is as Divine as the Essence Itself.  

One may consider the birth of a baby to be of a similar nature - the mother gives of herself as the ovum and the father gives of himself as a spermatozoon.  These are emanations of the parents and fuse to become a new person.  This concept, therefore, is in no way related to 'creationism'.  'Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can but be transformed from one form to another'.  (First Law of Thermodynamics)

I quote from the writings of Dr. J.J. Williamson of The Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.:- (2b1)

"The Absolute is that ONE state wherein ALL within Infinity and Eternity co-exist.  That is to say, ALL things exist as one state or unit referred to to as the 'Absolute'. 

a) If ALL things are as ONE then they must co-exist, e.g. occupy the same infinitely dimensioned space, time and condition of being. 

b) If ALL things are as ONE then there is no REAL separation between them  by virtue of space, time or state, i.e. at the Absolute, differences of all kinds cease to exist as such. 

c) If ALL things co-exist, then any reaction in one thing or in any group of things less than the Absolute (the UNIT), implies a like reaction in ALL other things within the Absolute.  Obvious results of this fact appear as 'resonance' in physical science; 'like' states have sympathetic reactions." (The Law of Unity in Metaphysics.)

For the benefit of Jewish and Christian readers I quote from the Sepher Yetzira:- "Acath (feminine, not the masculine 'achad') Ruach Elohim Chiim" - "One is She (the Creative Force), the Spirit of the Elohim of Life."   Feminine 'Spirit' (singular) is Eloha but the plural ending here is the 'im' (masculine) denoting bipolarity (female & male) and plurality.  Here the ancient Israelites had not yet formalised the concept of a singular male mega-deity who invented the universe as a plaything to pass the time.  Indeed that אלוהים (Elohim) found in the first verse of Berashith in the Torah is still the word that opens most Jewish prayers.

An essential function of this Essence is to permeate and maintain the whole of this vast emanation or Cosmos and every structure therein, ensuring that each entity develops then remains true to its own nature. At the end of any structure's useful life, It withdraws the maintenance of Life Force by allowing the energy in that portion of manifestation to degrade due to the progressive increase in Entropy in order that this portion of Its emanation be removed from manifestation and reabsorbed into The One.  In Physics, a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work is often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.   The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that "entropy always increases with time" and, therefore, age.
But often in the ensuing chaos, as when a star goes supernova, new order appears - cosmic dust clouds which become stellar nurseries incubating new stars.  And so chaos can be the precursor to order - order occurring because of chaos not despite chaos.  Here we see Prigogine's cyclical scenario:-

birth of a star >
    star life [stability] >
       turbulence [entropy - instability] >
          supernova [chaos] >
             dispersed cloud of elements [stellar nursery] >
                birth of a new star.
(vide Prigogine's definition of dissipative structures - 1977) 

 ( stability = Metaphysical Law of Equilibrium)

I feel that this Source-of-All may be visualised as an immense black sphere beyond our comprehension, the depth-point of which is everywhere and the perimeter of which is nowhere, denoting infinity. 

The Source's attributes, therefore, may be considered in this wise:-   The Source is Mother - The Source is Father.  The Source is Me - The Source is You.   The Source is Brother - The Source is Sister.

And in this last statement, this fraternity or sorority applies to any conceivable or inconceivable metaphysical fact, remembering that such a fact is any thing that is perceived or experienced by a sense or senses.  Each fact moves parametrically within its appointed environment.

So, in reality, nothing exists except The Source - The All.  Yes, each of us may say humbly yet realistically and only.unto.ourselves on this one occasion but to be forever remembered, "I and my Parents are One", i.e. in layman's terms, "I am God"!  (Therein lies power.)

Now I concern myself with our manifested Cosmos, disregarding the prevalent modern Bubble theory of Multiverses where "there is no data to support 'the existence of multiple universes.' "

"Its an unproven hypothesis that Dr. Hawking arbitrarily elevates to genuine existence."  [St. Clair, Pierre (2014-06-02). Cosmology On Trial: Cracking The Cosmic Code (p. 115) ]  (This has sometimes been described by quantum physicists as being like the foam of an advancing tide)

whether the modern theory is the concept of a number of (mem)branes assembled as a series but in this case as a vertical arrangement which appears in sandwich formation or:

whether the current theory is is yet another favourite of the quantum physicist where the membranes or 'branes', as is the shortened form of the expression, are conceived as being not in a vertical pile but horizontally like the opposite illustration

yet again another M theory (Membrane or Matrix) which superceded the superstring TOE (theory of everything) i.e. a series of horizontal 'branes' which are found in the Higgs Field but which collide one with another to create a 'big bang' perhaps every trillion years providing new universes "born out of fire" - Ekpyrotic Universes. 

(The X in the above illustration shows 2 branes in collision.  Edward Witten, the originator of this concept declares that M-theory is but an unverified hypothesis not a theory.  Nevertheless, in many discussions in the media, Professor Hawking seems to have usurped this concept by omitting all reference to Witten and terms it - yes, a 'theory'.

A novel theory with which I can relate is based upon the Fibonacci figure (the spiral) - a figure found in sacred geometry and displayed throughout nature e.g. in the shell of sea creatures, animal horn spirals etc..

In appearance it could have an affinity with the ladies' fan when opened.  The Multiverse members could be understood to appear spiralling out from the centre.  The beauty of this concept is how it can satisfy the reverse enfolding to indulge in a 'big crunch' (at the end of a day of Brahma perhaps?),

I concern myself with the manifestation of our known Universe which is complicated enough for our our minds to comprehend.
Nevertheless this Dark Essence or Source, although always One may be considered as one of two Great Parents forever joined in a state of constant concubinage and in a perpetual discharge of orgasm which results in the continuing extrusion of new structures (whether visible or invisible) into manifestation.  (Even as the joint parental roles of a household can be viewed as one unit e.g. 'the Smiths', the Browns or 'the Taylors' etc.,we call this Essence, together with the God Persona, ''ffynhonnell  - 'source' in Welsh.)))

In Sanskrit we find prakrti  (prakriti) - Female joined with purusa (purusha) - the Supreme Masculine Life-Force. 

The  Chinese concept of yinyang, although being similar, having two Principles joined and complementary, has by common usage become bifurcated into the erroneous opposing Yin and Yang.



                DN as Cosmic Goddess. 


The ancients surveyed their environment and saw everything from mountains, forests, oceans and living things to these strange lights in the sky (sun, moon and stars) that seemed to go on for ever.  Someone must have made them all.
Now they knew that we all came from mothers for they saw the mystery of birth regularly in tribal life.  Everything, therefore, must have come from a Great or Universal Mother (Y Fam Gyffredinol).  So they visualised a suitable image of immense proportion and gave Her a name depending on their language.  So they anthropomorphised this Source and recognised Her Maternity.

Here we are dealing with the archetypal Cosmic Womb, Female Potency of the Cosmos or Illimitable Tumescent Receptor with the potential to bring forth all varying degrees of manifestation - an inert, latent, noumenal but all potential and probabilistic Essence which binds free-moving force into the organised symmetrical structures of the cosmos.  (Metaphysical Law of Symmetry)  Nevertheless, on account of this binding, constriction or discipline, She brings an end to dynamic, free-moving activity of free-moving essence on its extrusion.

I include a glimpse into Egyptian mythology here as it is the bedrock in contemporary Khemetic reconstructionism and moreover as I elected to perform research on behalf of friends who were anxious to ally themselves with the Netjert (Goddess) Sekhmet.  In Egyptian Myth, Sekhmet is known by one epithet from c. a hundred - "Lady Of The Place Of The Beginning of Time" as in one of Her hymns:-

"The bornless One alone lay deep within
The vanguard hid. 

One udjat opened premature and brief

Upon that hour and forth flew the power to flash

With searing heat and vivid brilliance 

Of a trillion trillion suns.

 There, where all were called to order and time was set 
To measure a glorious aeon, the Chaser 

Of incalculable shadows and the Caller into existence of

Countless forms of beauteous life proclaimed aloud 

Her power inexhaustible with one sustaind and deafening roar.

(similar concept to Tiamat in the Enuma Elish, First Tablet.)

(The above from Kaer Dathyl website: -  
Psychic page - journey to the Upper Nile - Hymns to Sekhmet.)

This Essence is similar to the Hindu Mahakali.  maha in Sanskrit = 'very great' so Mahakali is not just the Great [Goddess] Kali but the Very Great or Supernal Kali.  Kali,of course, is the darker aspect of Mother Durga, 'durga' meaning 'inaccessible' in Sanskrit, i.e. the inaccessible Mother Who lives in vast unseen realms of terrifying non-dimensionality.(2c.0)

Durga is pictured right as JaiMaa Thawewali Who is the Hindu equivalent of the Keltic Dn  Who is in all things and in Whom all things exist.

C.G. Jung, however, when discussing this Archetype (an image in the Collective Unconscious), is concerned with imprints of the physical world and reflects the influences of Christianity & Gnosticism, e.g. -

 "First in importance are the personal mother and grandmother, stepmother and mother-in-law; then any woman with whom a  relationship existsfor example, a nurse or  governess or perhaps a remote ancestress. Then  there are what might be termed mothers in a  figurative sense. To this category belongs the goddess, and especially the Mother of God, the Virgin, and Sophia." 

It is  rather strange that although mentioning the step-mother and mother-in-law, he ignores the sister and aunt and even 'wife', 'lover' and 'whore'!  His Christian influences disappear, therefore, as the uxorial role of Saint Elizabeth and  the whoredom of Mary Magdalene are forgotten.

 (vide Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype" (1939.1959) In CW 9, Part I: The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. 1959)

As Mahakali is mentioned above, the analogous imagery in Sanskrit encourages me to continue on this Eastern road, as the Keltic outcome will be recognised as the identical destination with the Sanskrit.

Satkaryavada - the theory of First Causes in Samkhya philosophy can be seen in the sixth chapter of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (2c.1) which declares the supremacy of सत्  sat
In Sanskrit,
sat  is pure essence,(2c.2) eternal existence, the Supreme, the cause (2d) as the origin of creation.  This concept of sat being the Dark Essence or Mother is upheld still by Eastern (Oriental/Naga) peoples.

     sat = being (present participle) or 'beingness' in Sanskrit
 also means 'truth' in Vedic Sanskrit.
...............sat-amse.projects the concept of  'in eternity'.  
....................satta-matram(2d)  is the original substance, the cause of
.........................sattamah(2d) = the supreme.
..............................satah (2d) of the eternal & of all living beings in
                                                                                            all planets.

...................................satarakah = with all the stars.
........................................satyasya = of the Absolute Truth.

Combining these phrases we may compose yet another epithet of the Cosmic Mother: - 

The Absolute true and Supreme Essence in eternal existence,  
the Origin of Universality throughout eternity.

   (And I doubt if any quantum physicist would disagree with that.)

From one ceremony to the Cosmic Mother:-  

(Page H11 of Kaer Dathyl website - "Y Fam Ddu".)

"Lo within this dimmest gyre -
Discernment deep of purpose,

Gender, Motherhood, acuity

Of Universal uterine proclivity."

Indeed I am reluctant to draw similarities between the Hindu Deities and the Keltic but what intrigues me is not the naming of Deities in disparate areas of Earth but the similarities between concepts and the terminology/imagery involved.   So to continue:-

When sat stretches out on the great cosmic drawloom on which unfolds the web (Keltic 'Y Gwe') where is woven the structure of manifestation, this process is termed तन् tan in Sanskrit.  What is implied here? 

To give satisfactory answer we must continue with the analysis of Sanskrit image-building.

.....Sanskrit tan = 'stretch/expand' (tanu from tan 'stretch') also
                                                                            'those/them/all those';
tanute = expands.
...............tan = to extend or lengthen out (in Yoga practice)
...................     tani = stretched (Hindi)
....................     tantram = loom (Sanskrit)
tantu = thread;
tantusu = in threads. 
..................................tanave = whose forms;
tantu = offspring;
tanu = the body. 
.................................................tan = body (Hindi)
.....................................................All being extensions (tan) of sat

All the above may be found in this page of the Tantrik Dictionary.

We now obtain the image projected by combining 'stretch out/expand' + 'loom' + 'threads' + 'offspring' + those + 'forms/body'.  When applied to the Sanskrit Cosmic Mother (Matripadma or Mother Lotus), the Avia of any culture and our own Keltic Cosmic Mother, we find the Great unseen unknown eternal Principle stretching Herself out in all possible directions outwith the Cosmos that is The manifest All within Herself, just as threads are stretched upon the drawloom.   And what She weaves are manifestations ('them', 'all those', 'forms' & 'bodies') all offspring of the Mother of Eternity - the modern quantum term Dark Matter.

There is a burning question in Quantum Physics at the moment - how can a Higgs singlet come into existence before it is created?   As The Absolute is that ONE state wherein ALL within Infinity and Eternity co-exist, then the Higgs singlet must have existed NOT before its creation (as we eschew creationism) but in the mind of the Dark Matter before its extrusion.

As I have already noted the Hebrew acceptance of the femininity of the Spirit of the אלוהים , Elohim, it is important to remember that the phrase relating to the creatrix is ehyeh aer ehyeh which is usually translated as "I am that I am", denoting an unchanging permanency of God. (Patriarchal corruption again)  This is a very common mistake as ehyeh deserves its correct translation which is "I will be" resulting in "I will be what I will be".  This reinforces the concept of the Feminine Principle Who will  become as and when She decides and Who will continually present ever new manifestations in Her extrusion (not creation) or 'stretching out'.  Wikipedia discusses this correction in considerable depth.

[Another word which is used in Sanskrit is sandhini for 'the existence-expanding energy' but, although Hindu religion appears polytheistic and herein admits this feminine expansion, this concept is incongruously explained by Srila Jiva Gosvami when he translates the text, as "potencies of the Lord", assuming only a masculinity of Brahma and, therefore, denying His/Its hermaphroditic potential - vide his thesis Bhagavat-sandarbha, Anucchedas 12-18.]

The Sanskrit tan also ensures that each and any structure (metaphysical 'fact'**) reaches the true potential of its species and encourages it to follow its true will and destiny so to do (aided perhaps by the ministrations of the Welsh personage Math - anthropomorphism of Tyghet, Destiny). 

**(A 'fact' in metaphysics is any 'thing' that exists and is observable by a sense or senses, e.g. a universe, galaxy. star, planet and all creatures of even nano dimension thereupon - in animal, plant or mineral form, even a mountain, a sound, odour of flowers or living beings, a disease, pain, water's coolness to the touch, the taste of food, an hallucination, emotion, concept, dream etc..  Yes every thing or phenomenon!)  [Metaphysical Law of Finite Perception]

This Essence has at times been termed the Primordial Root or Cosmic Substance (3) i.e. Dark Matter in modern parlance.  Science now understands that after the so-called Big Bang, all that existed from c, 380,000 to 1 billion years was a universe of complete darkness (Cosmological Dark Ages) before manifestation of the first stars, quasars and super black holes.  Indeed we could view this period of Dark ages as the Great Mother's period of gestation.


As the Builder of forms, She also ensures the end of such, as every form must expire at the end of its allotted span and return in spirit to its Mother when its physical use is outworn.  For this reason the Great Mother has been called also 'the sow who eats her own farrow'. 

Joseph Campbell in his 'The Hero with a Thousand Faces' explains that the goddess figure is the womb and the tomb", the container of the foetus and the home of the departed.(2b)  It is the Hindu Kali Who is seen as the destroyer of all She brings forth in Hindu mythology.

Looking again to the Egyptian Sekhmet (Who was derived from the dread lioness Queen of Queens in South Western Uganda - Nyabinghi, the Goddess black as night) in Her epithet 'Lady of the Bloodbath':-

"The Ruler of Serpents and Dragons even Nesert, 
the Royal Serpent, calleth the venomous cobras

to bite deep their back and front.

The Warrior Netjert draweth Her bow to loose 
Her arrows one by one to deeply wound and 

slay with the savage sting of scorpions.

Sekhmet of the Knives rendeth their throats agape,
as wide as yawning jaws of Sobek at the 

waters edge of Lower Khemet.  Then see we 

their countenances filled with terror. 

Sekhmet, Wanderer in the Wastes,  
 Quaffeth the swift flowing tide that is
Their crimson lifeblood.

Her thirst is such that, with Her drinking done, 
Their corpses lie as withered parchment dried by desert sun,

To be consumed by hyena, snake and vulture." 

Ergo birth = death and death = birth.

Tan, discussed above,is also responsible for increase in entropy in a 'fact', until the energy to live is pushed out completely causing demise/expiry, irrespective of the methodology - e.g. a star going supernova or a vildebeest being torn apart by the hunting lioness.  (Yes, Nature is red in tooth and claw!)  In this way, Dn is not only the giver of birth but also the giver of death.  I have used the word 'drawloom' deliberately as it requires two operators, in this case alluding to the Goddess and God - as explained previously.

This brings us full circle to "the sow that eats her own farrow".  Before a sow may ingest one of her young, she must first kill it.  Likewise, as Dn is the instrument of birth so too, I suggest, is She the instrument of death.

The extrusion of Her Essence brings, as an essential complement by Her nature of Alma Mater, Her Essence of Life and growth (in scientific terms, a 'carrier wave' or clinically innocuous 'dispersal vector' with life-giving energy as passenger) to the designed form manifested.  This is maintained as a continuum throughout the life of each fact or phenomenon ensuring the vibrancy of life.

In the evening of each form's span in time, however, the extrusion of the Essence becomes devoid of the gift of life but proceeds as a neutral medium or passenger-free carrier which continues to push ever onward.

The finality of this relentless thrust of Entropy pushes the remaining Force of life out of the manifested form to bring eventual and inescapable death as, already stated, Entropy increases with age. (the Second Law of Thermodynamics)

To the right is an enlightened artist's interpretation of 'The Dark Mater.'

In the myth of the Keltic Kerridwen we see the continuation of the birth > death process - the converse, the death > birth of reincarnation which was quite logical to the Kelt as, in Kerridwen's wild rage for Gwion's negligence in his task of stirring constantly the Pair yr Awen (cauldron of inspiration), She (the Dark Essence) hunts the fleeing youth and, with an episode of constant shape-shifting by both, She as a hen devoured young Gwion who had transformed himself into a grain of wheat in his efforts to escape. 

Then, as the myth continues, "And so did Gwyion grow as nine moons waxed, as nine moons waned and to Kerridwen the pangs of birth appeared.  Her moaning ever stronger grew and, as She lay in travail and in pain, the waters flowed.  And with the flowing came Her cry of agony as womb did firm descend, and with the cry - a child, Her son.  Gwyion who wert - Gwyion who art -Gwyion reborn". 

And so the young Gwion was reincarnated and, in the tale, would be transformed into the entity Taliesin the bard.

Yes, our Great Cosmic Mother Who gives life is also the Destroyer, Annihilator and Killer Who takes life only to give it again and again, the process reduplicating on a continuum of cycles!  Should one revisit the very first paragraph on Dn where the Linguistic History initiates the analysis of the Deities, they will find an illustration of the Dark Goddess.   Here Her image is given opposite.

When this picture is examined again (R. click on 'view image'), the Goddess is seen to hold not only the key to the door of the womb and resulting birth but also the dagger in Her right hand with which to deliver the final death blow - She is 'ffynhonnell a diwedd' (Source and Ending)  This artist too was  obviously enlightened! 

Now we realise that She is not only the Source but also the Ending - the Alpha and Omega, a concept usurped by Christianity.  Nor should one shrink from this concept remembering Freddie Mercury of Queen who sang, "Who wants to live forever?"  Most terminally-ill patients would agree whole heartedly when the intense pains of cancer unleash their final onslaught.

Again when a new urban development is required for the modern living standards of a growing population, the slums of yesteryear with their unsanitary conditions must first be torn down.  This, however, is a necessary preparatory stage of development and is most decidedly not wanton destruction.  So it is with vegetation which must die on a annual basis that life return to the earth the following spring, and so it is with man that he be cut down in death at the end of his allotted span and be freed from the restrictions of an aged earthly frame that his spirit may continue on its ever upward path of personal development through reincarnation.  The Dark Goddess' hand is also hereupon.

Medieval philosophers attempted to name this Essence Azoth, an acronym formed by the first and last letters of the three languages favoured by academics of the time - Latin, Greek and Hebrew.The mixture was A from Latin, alpha from Greek and aleph from Hebrew, the last letters being Z from Latin, omega from Greek and tav from Hebrew, their patriarchal deity being bound to respond, so they thought, to this overdone salutation - the magi of that period were taking no chances of being ignored!

Our individual spirits, then (but not souls), are not created by but are born of (extruded by)The One, lived in The One and She in us (sublime reciprocated love), returning to the Wells of Peace - The One at the termination of each incarnation and forever at the consummation of an aeon.   In tribute to Arlen Wilson, the late widow of Robert Anton Wilson who wrote of these matters, here is her poem "Our Lady of Outer Space" from the book 'Chaos and Beyond' by Robert Anton Wilson (Robert Anton Wilson & Permanent Press 1994):-

"Reach down for the sun, reach down
for the stars, reach deeper for the secret
places of the body of her the stars adorn.
You are lost and found in her embrace.
There is nowhere else for you to fall and
no escaping from her love for she is
black and pulsing source,
her million twinkling nipples
nurse all life,
her jeweled ardent body
twines around you always
and there is no place
to go but

And I ask, "Where else can one find such perfect imagery of the Dark Mother or indeed the burning devotion in the heart of the writer?"

I'm afraid this description of the deadly side of the Great Dark Goddess must shatter the pictures prevalent in Roman Catholic Christianity of Mary Queen of Heaven - the sweet, harmless, ever-loving, yet doloriferous mother:-

"Stabat Mater dolorosa 
iuxta Crucem lacrimosa, 
dum pendebat Filius. 

Cuius animam gementem, 
contristatam et dolentem 
pertransivit gladius."

She is often termed the Dark, i.e. hidden Mother (Keltic Mam ddu or Mam cudd) - the secret concept behind the Black Madonna in Eastern Orthodox Christianity and although mentioned in the myth many times as the mother of one or other of her children, She is never seen, reinforcing the concept of a latent invisible Essence which is the agent of cosmic parturition and death.

There is the venerated Mexican Nuestra Seora de la Santa Muerte (Our Lady of the Holy Death) whom the Church equates with the Madonna in mourning.  Nevertheless the real Dark Mother, as we have seen, is NOT the Mater Dolorosa as She weeps not at the death of any of Her children but rejoices in their home-coming at the end of each allotted span or finally at the consummation of an aeon.

When examining Polynesian belief systems, it is interesting to discover that the Maoris of New Zealand have the cosmogony of Te Kore (primal Chaos / unmanifest) or Io-matua-kore  Io (the parentless one), TePo (Darkness) and Ao-maramai (manifested Light Principles).

This is similar to the Hindu Sanskrit philosophy and that of a number of Oriental peoples and indeed the Kelts, with reverence of the great Ariki (forefathers) even as we honour the mighty dead of Y Gwerin (The Warband) by holding a feast in their honour at the Great  Assembly.   Mauri is the life principle or vital spark which all people and things contain. Thereafter there is a polytheistic outlook in their world of humanity.(3a)

The Cosmic Goddess is considered to be in triple aspect:-

  1. The fons et origo of all metaphysical facts - Initiator (extrusion
      of new forms)
  2. The Maintainer of all in manifestation - Nurturer (Alma Mater) 
  3. The Remover/Destroyer of all outmoded facts - Recycler ("the
      sow who eats her
own farrow") 

Perhaps I have spent more time than is usual in this analysis of one Deity but I maintain that this is essential when examining The Avia - Grand Mother, (Keltic Mam fawr) of all Creation.  I have included Sanskrit in previous paragraphs to satisfy a student Andrea B. who informed me on one occasion that "Sanskrit is the 'mother language' of Earth." (Well I wonder what the language was as spoken by the troglodytic peoples of Kelt-Iberia of 20,000 to 12,000 a.e.v., not to mention the ancient Picts of Alba.)

I had the following message left on my website by this very Andrea on 5th July 2012:-

"What do you think of the near 'discovery' of the 'not quite' Higg's Boson-type 'particle'?  They say it's action is a binding together of particles, at the "Big Bang" event.  Otherwise, all the multi-billions of particles would have simply dispersed, individually.  Ipso facto, no galaxies, quarks or solar systems.

A Manifestrix - She who glues the Multiverses Together!?  Yea, Creatrix, wherefore art thou?  The only thing is, the Established 'religions' are going to jump on this as PROOF that they are right."
My response: "
I agree, Andrea - if anything it is a Goddess particle, not a God particle.

Here are todays burning questions which besprinkle the internet:- What is Dark Matter?  What is Dark Energy?  What is the difference between Dark Matter and Dark Energy?  Are they really the same?  Do they exist at all?

I quote from the internet BBC page on Dark Matter:-  "Dark matter is a kind of matter hypothesized in astronomy and cosmology to account for gravitational effects that appear to be the result of invisible mass.  Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits or absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level.  It is otherwise hypothesized to simply be matter that is not reactant to light.  Dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95.1% of the total content of the universe."

Dark Matter Distribution in Supercluster Abell 901/902

This is from the internet NASA Science - Astrophysics page:- "So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating.  No one expected this and no one knew how to explain it.  But something was causing it.   Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is but they have given it a name.  It is called dark energy. 

The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence. Then one version of Einstein's gravity theory, the version that contains the cosmological constant, makes a second prediction: 'empty space' can possess its own energy."   Was Einstein foreseeing the concept of Exotic Matter (XM).  It is both matter and energy existing in multiple dimensions? 
vide:  http://www.nianticproject.com/?id=00wod15  and
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/exotic_matter.html and

Dark energy was the term coined by Michael Turner and below is a simplified graph of the "What"?

1. The previously observable universe
    before Hubble? 

2. The present boundaries of our
    universe as seen in the Hubble
    Ultra Deep Field?  (Illustration

3. A totally erroneous picture of the entirety of Cosmic infinity which really should place 'Atoms' (observable matter) at nano, zepto or yocto level (if even that)?

First of all we should disregard the 0.4% missing from the 'Atom' section.  The artist could not count!

(chart from Chandra X-ray Observatory website)


If we are to be guided by the word hypothesized above which really means the following:- (" Energy - matter - schmatter?  Who cares?  We are making these terms up.  We are inventing something we've never seen.  Is the rebitsin in the shandhoiz?  Who knows?  Have you seen it - I haven't?  Maybe it's not there - yet maybe it is!  These terms could be utter garbage.  We just don't know ......... oy vey, we could be schmucks but we gotta be seen to be erudite physicists"), is there an honest answer to be found anywhere?  Oh! Yes indeed.

David B. Cline in a 2003 article in Scientific American wrote: "The terms 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' serve mainly as expressions of our ignorance."  Bless and thank you David!  And now we may thank Dr. Alexader Kashlinski for adding yet another such spurious term - 'dark flow'.

May we help here?  

Nevertheless, as I stated in a contemporary paper, when discussing the synthesised hormonal effects on haemorrhagic symptomatology, it is not an instance of inventing something new but of remembering something old. 

Let us return, then, to the old Sanskrit premise of sat, the ONE Dark Essence/Cosmic Goddess/etherial invisible Dark Matter that has always existed but is only observed after She, the ONE has extruded phenomena and Who always pushes out - 
tan in every direction, as it is Her proclivity to inflate, expand, increase, extrude, push out and lengthen - hence the expanding Universe.  Einstein corroborated this when he said that it is possible for more space to come into existence. 
And in relation to Einstein's prediction that 
'empty space' can possess its own energy - what physicists now call Dark Energy, the following observation is valid:- this endorses not only the Math (gravity) proclivity of the Dark Goddess, as already described, but also ratifies what we already know - that it is space/Dark Matter (Dark Goddess) that expands
of Her own volition - Her 'tan' property.  One could then, if it were perplexingly necessary, call this division of Her unique persona Dark Energy.           ......
Here is a simple allegory.  Can we watch our local rabbi on holiday in Jerusalem and try see him standing by the 'Wailing' Wall of the temple at the dead of night?  It is dark and he, being inert and dressed in black, cannot be seen - the dark rabbi is alone - the ONE.  Now we see a vague, imperceptible shadowy movement as he bows up and down while intoning some verses in Hebrew. If we were in the company of a scientist, he would now think and hypothesize "There must be an invisible energy that causes this subtle movement to occur in the deep shadows - let me think of a name Ah yes - 'wall energy'. "  Oh! No, no, no, no, no - it is the innate religiosity and piety coming from within the rabbi that causes this imperceptible motion to manifest.  The Dark Rabbi calmly remains on his own, still the ONE.

I have been asked often how do I attempt to conceptualize the dimensions of the Dark i.e. Cosmic Goddess or Essence.  My answer is, "Think of the dimensionality being the enclosed volume of a sphere  but a sphere of which the depth-point is everywhere and the circumference is nowhere (denoting indispensable infinitude)" , viz:-

 V  = 4  p r! 3
where V is the enclosed volume, r is Y(Gpc/h)* and ! is a factorialAs modern physics clings to a unique supersymmetric theory in 11 dimensions (11D), I suppose one could add to the power 11 to the equation thus appeasing the theoretical physicists!  The answer is still a fraction of  infinity. Every mathematician knows, however, that we cannot do mathematics with infinity so perhaps my above equation may appear totally erroneous although it merely approaches infinity without qualifying or quanitifying it.  [St. Clair, Pierre (2014-06-02). "Cosmology On Trial: Cracking The Cosmic Code" (p. 108). (Torchlight Science, San Diego) Kindle Edition.]

*1xGpc/h (Gigaparsec/Hubble constant) = 1000xMpc/h (Megaparsecs/h) = 4.5 billion light years. Y is yotta (septillion short scale). The approximate radius of our entire observable universe is just 14 gigaparsecs to date.

Does the illustration below invite your right cerebral hemisphere to visualise an analogous down-to-earth picture  - a vast cosmic womb containing every  star-scape and more, rather similar to an earthly womb and its fibroids!?

Let us bring the dimensionality, however, down to an understandable level - think of the entire observable Universe, seen by Hubble out to the Ultra Deep Field North, as being our minuscule back garden and the vista viewed to the Ultra Deep Field South as our minute front gardenAgain this is but the tiniest fraction of infinity notwithstanding.
Permit me to reiterate. I rather like to visualise the Great Cosmic Goddess as a sphere the size of which is infinite.  It is formed of and is filled with Dark Matter but within this Dark Matter hang billions of galactic clusters or even galactic cities - all crystallized from the Dark Matter and remaining within the sphere.  These galaxies tend to journey ever outwards in all directions, yet the dark sphere constantly grows in size to accommodate and assist their outward flight.

Nevertheless perhaps it is not the galaxies that are pushing outwards toward a 'big rip', as it is called, but the natural extension & expansion of the Dark Matter that is pulling the galaxies with it (Her).  But can infinity be exceeded?  As we know it, no but as we enigmatically feel it, yes - the Cosmic Mother functions beyond time, beyond space and beyond all we can imagine or understand.  Nothing exists except this sphere - She - The All in One.

1      Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (CDM, California) 1992
1b    The White Goddess by Robert Graves (Faber & Faber) 1961. 
1c     Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (Anchor Books) 1995. 
2.      Shadow Matter & Psychic Phenomena by Dr. Gerhard Wassermann (Mandrake Press)

2a//// Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (Anchor Books) 1995 
2b     The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell  (New Jersey: Princeton University
         Press) 1949
2b.1  An Outline of the Principals and Concepts of The New Metaphysics by Dr. J J Williamson -
         Society of Metaphysicians Ltd. 1967
2c     Witten, Edward. Radio interview, Vetandets vrld, Swedish public radio, 6 June 2008. 
2c.0  'Particles and Beyond' - Speech delivered by Xavier Bilonon on 7 March 2012 at
         University of the Philippines Diliman.
2c.1  Brihadaranyaka Upanishad chapt. 6 (Shankara Bhashya translated by Swami
         Madhavananda 1950)
2c.2  Wikipedia. 
2d     on line Dictionary of Sanskrit 
2e     ibid.
3       The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966. 
3a     Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 10-Apr-13. 
       ' Traditional Maori religion nga karakia a te Maori - Nga atua the gods' by Basil Keane.


defiling Her with their lies and blasphemy

The early church fathers felt the pressing need for an equilibrating concept but, following their intrinsic male chauvinism (and, in certain cases, their possible predilection for homosexuality - if we may be guided by the many aberrations, offences and convictions among today's Christian priesthood), they perversely opted for evil rather than recognise the Feminine Principle by Which obviously they felt threatened.
Let us not forget that the clerics in Vatican City, who are quite competent in conversing in Latin to this day, uphold an erudite tradition of old.  In addition to Latin, Attic and Homeric Greek, they were familiar with Hebrew texts and had researched most likely the well established Hindu beliefs in the Upanishads and Vegas.

What is also evident, when one puts 1 + 1
together, (the Sanskrit sat + tan), the sum does not compute to 666 as suggested by (un)holy Mother Church.  It corrupted most vilely the image of the Dark Mother. 

It gave Her a gender reassignment and concocted the blatant and most blasphemous lie that the now HE was the ultimate sink of all iniquities, enormity and evil  - Satan or the Devil.  

Note well that the name of the public prosecutor on Hebrew theophanic strata (whose remit is to accuse and demand punishment of the wicked) is Sheitan and his Arabic counterpart Sheytan as well as Iblis. (The plural Shayaateen is the Arabic for devils or demons - Qlippoth in Hebrew.) 

Neither name is Satan which is the contrived elision of sat and tan. sat On the other hand they may have taken 'satan' directly from Sanskrit in which language sat means "truth".  An is a diminutive of Anata (eternal), therefore satan means "truth eternal".

The Church's perverse exercise unconsciously gave us 'eternal truth' in satan, revealing their clumsy transmogrification to be a lie.  Who is the "Father of lies" now?  (Something Freudian here?) 
To the priesthood of the early church, light equated with goodness, therefore darkness must represent evil.  And if their line of thought assisted in denigrating the Female Origin of all, so much the better. The Church also incorporated the attributes of Deities such as Gwynn into this frightful and negative thought-form. 

St. Gregory the Great, Pope from 590 - 604, was the first to allot to the Christian Devil the physical attributes of elder Deities - and so he dressed the transmogrified sat-tan in the horns and hooves of the rustic Pan, the limp of Wotan, the black complexion of Saturn and the beard of Thor.  And the face has usually and undoubtedly the features of one of the Jewish race - a deliberate insult!

Wotan                          Pan                         Thor

Added to this, of course, were the fires of Gehenna or Hell with which the followers of such creatures would be tormented.  In this, Christianity allotted to 'Death's Escort' the claiming of the human soul by this neo-devil, causing the Psychopompos aspect to become abhorrent.   The bestial aspects which were added thereunto simply represented what was detestable to the Christian hierarchy of those times - enjoyable sexual love. 

By this additive, the second horn, the fecundity aspect, was ripped from the forehead of the Keltic Gwynn (discussed in the Taxonomy), the Hellenic Pan and similar Deities.  And the repression of this natural instinct was to form complexes which would be the trigger for innumerable fantasies and pseudo-possessions in later centuries, especially within the hotbeds of celibacy - monasteries and convents.

It was the same academics who, in indulging in gematria, believed that as the number 2 was the first number to break away from the unity of 1 (God) it was, therefore, a feminine and evil number.  With a trifle more study, however, they would have realised that on the Rabbinical Otz Chiim the second and male sephira Chokmah is the first sephira to depart from the Unity of Kether while the next and third feminine sephira Binah was the Ama and the Aima - sterile and fertile mothers respectively with the Saturnine colour black. 

Mind you, all this is not unexpected as the Catholic Church was and is a seething hotbed of Patriarchal complexes and much more.  Nevertheless but erroneously, odd numbers to the Christian priesthood remained good & masculine while all even numbers remained evil & feminine.

This enforced metamorphosis, a hideously grotesque chimera, also provided a long-term bonus by which the Church could be perpetuated - the provision of an evil entity (The Devil) which could be used as a weapon to frighten, threaten and coerce its followers thus maintaining an ensured captive congregation, their captivity being the cruel iron chains of Christian mythological dogma and doctrine.  Here was the real deal and the perfected raison d'etre of The Church militant per omnia saecula saeculorum!
A contemplative Diaboloj

"So The Church was the womb that bore me!"

Organised religion
now parted company with spirituality and all cosmated thought, becoming a dry husk of perverted philosophy that could not sustain the human spirit but slowly poisoned the human atma or individual spirit by way of the unsuspecting subliminal gnosis and tainted consciousness of each devotee.

Now to return to:

The Dark Goddess

She Who waits in welcome at the Dark Portal

The Dark Matriarch

Cimmerian of hue
Thenduring Matriarch;
Corporeal yet incorporeal
Dwelleth She
In glorious mansions infinite,
Bedecked in swirling melismas
Of kaleidoscopic brilliance
And in deep dark
Whence none may egress find.

Her fingers yet caress
Each bright assemblage
That be Her jewelld form
And venerated disposition - aye too,
In spaces all that linger well
As soundless sentinels
To bed Her children down
In quietude secure,
She lives Her lovely life.

Constant in growth She moves,
Outspreading All within The One,
An everlasting wonder iridescent -
Veracity in resolute perfection.

We see, we feel and understand
The pledge of life profuse;
And all our yesterdays,
Our years extant,
Yea all our firm futurity
Are bound as one
In ageless perpetuity.
Within my soul roameth She ~
My silent spirit Her sweet breath,
Until She summoneth me
From paths of consummation
To swiftly homeward steer
For Kaer Pedryfan,
The celestial bliss
Of Gwynfa Gorawen.*

(* Paradise of Rapture)

We are all children of stardust


As Math, the brother of Dn, gives His name to the entire 4th Branch of The Mabinogi, it is perhaps just to include here an analysis and presentation of this persona in the legend of Math ap Mathonwy.

MATH is the brother of Dn. 

He is termed 'Son of Mathonwy' in the title of the myth and was the ruler over that portion of the country know as Gwynedd.  Throughout the myth he is very much the ruler inasmuch as he lays down the rule or laws.  He hears all.  He possesses the power, and indeed on many occasions exercises that power, to reward or punish.  And it is to Math that his subjects turn for judgements as he is considered the final arbiter.

He appears, therefore, to be the anthropomorphism of Fate.  Although these attributes should be remembered at this stage, it is perhaps essential that we provide textual evidence to support this hypothesis.  This I feel is a sine qua non as Math not only gives his name to but also imprints his influence on this entire branch of The Mabinogi. 

Textual Analysis

"Math .................. was lord over Gwynedd."

'Lord' is synonymous with 'ruler', he who lays down rules or laws - and Fate (action and reaction) is a complex cosmic law.

"Math might not live save while his two feet were in the fold of a maiden's lap."

The maiden was Goewin daughter of Pebin of Dol Bebin in Arfon.  Goewin means 'sprightly', denoting youth and was the earthly repesentative of the feminine principle on the mundane stratum of the legend. His power and very existence, then, lies in this feminine principle - especially in maidenhood, the state prior to motherhood or bringing forth.  He is stated, therefore, to be an offshoot of the Primordial Maiden, Dn.

"The peculiarity of Math son of Mathonwy: whatever whispering, however low, there be between men, once the wind has met it he will know of it."

Nothing may be hidden from Math, nothing may escape his attention.  He is, therefore, universally based and, once aware of an action, implements the appropriate reaction.

"Math ................. and his host."

Here Math is in war council and, therefore, takes up the sword of justice as war-lord i.e. the bringer of retribution or negative fate.

"'Aye', said Math, 'between me and God, if it please Gwydion son of Dn, I shall leave it gladly.  Nor will I for my part compel anyone to go to fight, instead of doing what we can'."

"'Let him be freed then'." (speaking of the Dyfed hostage.)

Here Math is seen as the arbiter and just judge whose word is law and whose commands are to be obeyed without question.

"'Aye', said he (Math), 'what I can, I will do: redress for thee (Goewin) first, and then I will seek redress'."

Math is the dispenser of retribution, not only on behalf of others, but also for the contravention of the inbuilt laws of Justice or Fate by Gwydion's aiding Gilfaethwy's rape of Math's foot-holder.  As the maiden represents Dn, Gilfaethwy's mother, the lusting of this young man after a symbolic mother may point to a taboo on incest in Kymraec society at that time.

"A ban on their meat and drink went out against them." (i.e. Gwydion & Gilfaethwy)

Here is another example of Math's decrees which will compel malefactors to submit to justice.

"'But since you have come to me (Math), I will begin punishment upon you'."

Again he is portrayed as the dispenser of retribution.  In this case Gwydion and Gilfaethwy are condemned to become three different species of animal, one species for each of three years and each year one man will have young by the other.  Math sees the result at the end of this period, commenting how each had suffered "great shame", suggesting a further taboo in Keltic society, that of homosexual copulation. 

"'Long enough has been your punishment'."

Math is here displayed as the forgiver of sins, he who negates the punishment of negative fate when it is fully discharged.

"They came to Math ............. and made the most sustained complaint."

He is recognised by all as the judge to whom supplications may be made for justice - one whose power may be invoked.

"'Aye', said Math, 'let us seek, thou and I, by our magic and enchantment to conjure a wife for him (Lleu) out of flowers'."

Math as the Lord of Fate undoes the injustice of Aranrot on Lleu to load the balance in his favour and give him the gifts and rewards which are his right.   (positive fate)

"'Why', said Math, 'I will give him the very best Cantref for a young man to have'."

This again demonstrates Math as the bestower of gifts or just rewards, i.e. positive fate.

"'Lord, it is time for me to have redress from him through whom I suffered ill'."

The appeal by Lleu to Math as judge shows that retribution is not only expected but indeed demanded.  (i.e. invocation for this specific purpose - no 'turning of the other cheek' in that early society.)

Math's treatment of Blodeuwedd by transforming her into an owl for her betrayal of Lleu Llaw Gyffes.

Again we are presented with an example of having to pay for one's misdeeds as directed by The Lord of Fate.

Having examined the text, can the name Math add further proof of his position in the pantheon?

The name Math is obviously a part of MATHonwy.  He is, therefore, an extruded or externalised part of Mathonwy.  Math is the nasal mutation of the Welsh 'bath' which means a coin, and a coin is the medium by which payment is made and so must misdeeds be accountable by the perpetrator - another fact to be held in memory at this point.  To equate Math with 'treasure', as is sometimes done, is over simplification and of spurious validity when analysed thus.

The remaining part of Mathonwy as yet unexplained is 'onwy'.  Remembering that 'on' (the ash) was symbolic of The Great Mother Goddess and knowing that 'wy' is Welsh for 'egg', we now realise that Math is the extruded part of the egg or seed of the ash - brother of the Cosmic Goddess in her latent or virgin state (an embryonic ash) prior to her flowering into maturity and motherhood which brought forth the extruded manifestation of the protyles/children and all phenomena.

Math is, therefore, the 'Management Extension' of the Cosmic Goddess and the anthropomorphised Principle of Action and Reaction which permeates The Web and was part of the necessary equation to permit developed manifestation.  In recalling  his attributes as judge, lawgiver and bestower of positive and negative rewards and how payment must be made, we have his clear identity - The Lord of Fate or Destiny (Karma in Eastern philosophy). (3)

Graves and Squire equate Math with 'treasure', Squire further identifying him with "Pluton, the Greek God of Hades" as does Rolleston.  Even Lewis Spence in 'The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain' calls him a British "ruler of the Underworld" and Spence surprisingly was a prolific writer on the British Mystery systems, Druidism and the Arthurian mythos with much erudite research to his credit.

As Lord of Fate, therefore, He is a necessary extension of the passive or feminine part of The Essence - that invisible web of stresses upon which parturition or manifestation forever takes place.  Here, then, is the Agent of Destiny Who is still part of The One - The All.

I suggest that, as an extension of the above cosmic Essence, He is concerned with action and reaction, allowing this Essence and the God Force to coalesce in order that manifestation become reality.

Thereafter all actions, be they of a spiritual/etherial nature or of a grossly material genre, cause an appropriate reaction to occur which in turn determines the evolution of each unique element involved  within manifestation - Metaphysical Law of Cause & Effect.

Again this is a noumenal principle - the necessary Medium or anthropomorphic Facilitator who brings Dn and Her consort Beleu together on the web of stresses (just as two human partners become deeply attracted to each other, with the correct 'chemistry' as part of the attraction) and was there before manifestation. He is in mundane human terminology - the Jewish Shadchan or marriage broker.

There may be a parallel of Math with the natural phenomenon of gravity which is emitted by Dark Matter and by which all material is literally held together, be they atoms, stars, solar systems, galaxies or galactic clusters.

And by gravity all physical bodies, irrespective of size, exert an influence one upon another to direct or redirect the other's path.

Now thanks to Hubble we can see an observable form of gravity or fate in galactic collisions as the one opposite. I reiterate, Math appears to be the intrinsic anthropomorphised Management Extension of  Dn.

What is equally valid in this analysis of the Noumenon or Avia is the role of Her firstborn, the porthawr or gatekeeper of the the gates of birth and death.  His own personal analysis is so complex, however, that one should consider reading the account of this Noumenon in the Taxonomy at http://www.yplantdon.com/taxonomy.html

Sagittarius Star Cluster

Thank you, Carl Sagan, except
The Grand Mother invented science
but in a different language!

copyright Gareth Pengwerin
1985, 2004. 2010, 2015
all rights reserved

Antiphishing Filter
Blocks pages that contain phishing.
Antimalware Web Filter
Blocks pages that contain malware.
Search Advisor
Provides advanced warning of risky websites in your search results.